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Coagulation and Flocculation
Coagulation and Flocculation

Chemical treatment, in the form of coagulation and flocculation, is applied as a pretreatment method when the water is highly polluted with silt. In such cases, multimedia and pressure filtration setups could not handle the suspended solids, therefore requiring chemical assistance. First, a coagulant, like ferric chloride or polyaluminum chloride is dosed to destabilize the pollutants. After this, a polymer is added to initiate clumping to form larger particles called 'flocs', which are then easier to remove.

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Determining the correct pH during coagulation depends on the type of coagulant used and the sample, making this process specific to every application. If the pH is not optimized, the treatment could become inefficient. If it is too low, the... (More)

Traditionally, alum or aluminum sulfate is commonly used as a coagulant. Next to this is aluminum chloride; however, this is more expensive than alum. A cheap alternative is ferric chloride. However, it leaves a color, which would need to be... (More)

Coagulation is the process of adding a chemical reagent β€” a coagulant β€” to neutralize the charge of difficult-to-settle suspended solids and form microflocs, which are slightly bigger particles, but still difficult to settle. Flocculation is a succeeding process that... (More)

This depends on the retention time requirement. If a longer retention time is needed to form the flocs, a flocculation tank is recommended. Retention time is typically at 12 minutes, but could even extend up to 20 minutes. If the... (More)