In general, selection of the system to be installed depends on the operating pressure of the boiler. For low pressure boilers, ion exchange softeners are recommended, while for high pressure boilers, reverse osmosis is more recommended. Alternatively, electrodeionization may also... (More)
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According to Purolite, a leading manufacturer of ion exchange, catalyst, adsorbent and specialty resins, it takes less than 2 hours to regenerate a water-softening resin bed.
The regeneration stage involves multiple steps:
Backwash - 10 to 15 minutes
Chemical injection or aspiration - 15 to 30 minutes
Slow rinse - 40 to 60 minutes
Fast rinse - 10 to 20 minutes
Ion exchange is affected by both selectivity and concentration, among other factors. During the regeneration stage, the ion exchange process is favored at lower selectivity because the concentration of the saturated solution is more positive than that of the resin,... (More)